Логин или email Регистрация Пароль Я забыл пароль

Войти при помощи:

Судебные дела / Зарубежная практика  / David A. FIELD and Ellen J. Field, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. UNITED STATES of America, Defendant-Appellee., United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit., 328 F.3d 58, Docket No. 02-6163., May 2, 2003

David A. FIELD and Ellen J. Field, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. UNITED STATES of America, Defendant-Appellee., United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit., 328 F.3d 58, Docket No. 02-6163., May 2, 2003


David A. FIELD and Ellen J. Field, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. UNITED STATES of America, Defendant-Appellee.

United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit.

328 F.3d 58

Docket No. 02-6163.

May 2, 2003.

Argued: April 11, 2003.

Decided: May 2, 2003.

Elliot I. Miller, New York, N.Y. (David A. Field, on the brief), for Plaintiffs-Ap╜pellants David A. Field and Ellen J. Field.

Michael M. Krauss, Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York (James B. Comey, United States Attorney, and Jeffrey S. Ostericher, Assistant United States Attorney, on the brief), for Defendant-Appellee United States of America.

Before: JACOBS, STRAUB, Circuit Judges, CARMAN, Chief Judge. 1


1. Honorable Gregory W. Carman, Chief Judge of the United States Court of International Trade, sitting by designation.



The sole issue on appeal is whether die district court had jurisdiction over plaintiffs-Appellants' tax refund action. This Court holds that jurisdiction is not foreclosed by 26 U.S.C. ╖ 7422(h) (2000) and that the district court can properly exercise jurisdiction over this matter. Therefore, the district court's decision is reversed and the case is remanded for consideration of the merits of the action.

District courts generally have subject matter jurisdiction over tax refund claims pursuant to 28 U.S.C. ╖ 1346(a)(1). However, under 26 U.S.C. ╖ 7422(h), "[n]o action may be brought for a refund attrib╜utable to partnership items (as defined in section 6231(a)(3)) except as provided in section 6228(b) or section 6230(c)." 2 Based on a plain language reading of the statute, this provision does not bar juris╜diction. The statute indicates that for jur╜isdiction to be foreclosed, the refund (not the item which leads to that refund) must be attributable to partnership items. In other words, the refund must be based upon the assessment of a partnership item. This reading is further supported by the inclusion of the parenthetical reference to ╖ 6231(a)(3), which defines a "partnership item." Contrary to the United States' ar╜gument, the provision does not appear to bar jurisdiction in refund actions regard╜ing a category of items that are termed "attributable to partnership items." Thus, it is only with respect to partnership items that a refund action is precluded. "If the refund is attributable to partnership items, section 7422(h) applies and deprives the court of jurisdiction. If, on the other hand, the refund is attributable to nonpart╜nership items, then section 7422(h) is irrelevant, and the general grant of jurisdiction [in 28 U.S.C. ╖ 1346(a)(1)] is effective." Alexander v. United States, 44 F.3d 328, 331 (5th Cir.1995).


2. Neither exception to ╖ 7422(h) is applicable to this case. Plaintiffs-Appellants do not seek a refund based upon a computational error under ╖ 6230(c), nor do Plaintiffs-Appellants seek review of the Internal Revenue Service's ("IRS") denial of a request for an administra╜tive adjustment under ╖ 6228(b).


There are three factors which lead this Court to find that the interest as╜sessed against Plaintiffs-Appellants under former 26 U.S.C. ╖ 6621(c) is not a part╜nership item. First, the statutory defini╜tion of a "partnership item" is "any item required to be taken into account for the partnership's taxable year under any pro╜vision of subtitle A to the extent regula╜tions prescribed by the Secretary provide that, for purposes of this subtitle, such item is more appropriately determined at the partnership level than at the partner level." 26 U.S.C. ╖ 6231(a)(3). The IRS's regulations list items considered to be partnership items. Thus 26 C.F.R. ╖ 301.6231(a)(3)-1 states that "the follow╜ing items which are required to be taken into account for the taxable year of a partnership under subtitle A of the [Inter╜nal Revenue] Code are more appropriately determined at the partnership level than at the partner level and, therefore, are partnership items," and then lists various items, which do not include interest or ╖ 6621 (c) interest. 26 C.F.R. ╖ 301.6231(a)(3)-1. Additionally, former 26 U.S.C. ╖ 6621(c) was a part of subtitle F and therefore was not an item "to be taken into account ... under subtitle A." Id. Thus, the statutory definition of a "part╜nership item" and the IRS's regulations indicate that the ╖ 6621(c) interest is not a partnership item. The refund that Plain╜tiffs seek is therefore not attributable to a partnership item.

Second, the United States Tax Court has previously denied jurisdiction over claims regarding ╖ 6621(c) interest on the ground that the ╖ 6621(c) interest is not a partnership item. For example, in Affili╜ated Equipment Leasing II, the Tax Court noted its prior holding that it "lack[s] jur╜isdiction in a partner level proceeding to determine whether a petitioner is liable for increased interest under section 6621(c) where the only matters in dispute were additions to tax" and concluded that "sec╜tion 6621(c) interest is not a 'partnership item' and is not within the [Tax] Court's scope of review in a partnership level pro╜ceeding." Affiliated Equip. Leasing II v. Commissioner, 97 T.C. 575, 576-78, 1991 WL 241149 (1991) (citing White v. Com╜missioner, 95 T.C. 209, 212, 1990 WL 125093. (1991)). As recently as 2000; the Tax Court determined that ╖ 6621(c) in╜terest is an "affected item" (as defined in the margin below) 3 rather than a "part╜nership item" and therefore could not be reviewed at a partnership level proceed╜ing. Barlow v. Commissioner, Nos. 4651╜95, 4652-95, 6393-95, 6394-95, 2000 VVL 1649506, 2000 Tax Ct. Memo LEXIS 402, at *47-*51 (T.C. Nov. 3, 2000) ("Additional interest under section 6621 is an affected item because the determination of a tax╜payer's liability for such interest may re╜quire findings of fact peculiar to the par╜ticular taxpayer, namely, the amount of the taxpayer's underpayment that is at╜tributable to a tax-motivated transaction. Because the application of section 6621(c) turns on matters that are specific to indi╜vidual partners, it follows that such inter╜est constitutes an affected item that cannot be reviewed in a partnership level proceeding.") (citations omitted). These cases reinforce the view that the penalty interest at issue in this case is not attrib╜utable to a partnership item.


3. An "affected item" is defined as "any item to the extent such item is affected by a part╜nership item." 26 U.S.C. ╖ 6231(a)(5). As the Tax Court noted in Barlow, there are two types of affected items. The first type "is a computational adjustment made to record the change in a partner's tax liability resulting from the proper treatment of a partnership item." Barlow , 2000 WL 1649506, 2000 Tax Ct. Memo LEXIS 402, at *49 (citation omit╜ted). The second type is an item "that is dependent on factual determinations to be made at the individual partner level." Id . at *50. The Tax Court found that ╖ 6621(c) interest is the latter type of affected item. Id . at *50-*51.


Third, the parties agree that the ╖ 6621(c) interest at issue is not a "part╜nership item." Counsel for the United States conceded at oral argument that the item at issue is not a partnership item but rather is properly considered an affected item. Plaintiffs have consistently argued that the penalty interest is not a partner╜ship item. The United States argues that ╖ 7422(h) should be read to bar jurisdic╜tion over claims for refunds where the item to be refunded is "attributable to a partnership item," meaning it directly flows from a partnership item. As dis╜cussed, a plain reading of ╖ 7422(h) de╜feats of this argument.

For the reasons set forth above, the judgment of the district court is hereby vacated and the matter remanded for con╜sideration on the merits.


Вы также можете   зарегистрироваться  и/или  авторизоваться  


Электронный документ: вчера, сегодня, завтра

Несколько последних публикаций экспертов Synerdocs были посвящены электронным документам в судах и развитию системы электронного правосудия. В настоящей статье хотелось бы подвести некоторый итог и поднять вопрос о будущем электронного правосудия в России. А оно, как вы понимаете, напрямую связано с электронными документами

Чек-лист для проверки электронного документа на юридическую значимость

В этом году мы много говорили о представлении электронных документов в суд, не скупились на советы и рекомендации. При этом давно не поднимали тему юридической значимости. Пожалуй, с этого стоило начать цикл статей про электронное правосудие. Предлагаю обсудить, из чего же складывается юридическая значимость любого документа, и на что стоит обратить внимание при проверке документа на соответствие требованиям действующего законодательства в области ЭДО. Информация будет полезна всем: кто уже работает с электронными аналогами и тем, кто только открывает для себя новую область знаний.